IELTS Band 9.0 Essay: Problems and Solutions – Urbanisation

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TOPIC - Nowadays, more and more people are moving from the countryside to cities, which are becoming overcrowded. What are the reasons for this movement to cities and what can be done to reduce it?

 

THINGS TO REMEMBER

  1. ALWAYS read the topic clearly and work out exactly what you have to write about. This example requires you to outline the REASONS why people move from the countryside to cities and some SOLUTIONS to this.
  2. In an essay of 250 words, aim for TWO reasons and TWO solutions.
  3. Try to use a range of synonyms for repeated words e.g. "reasons" and "solutions" as well as synonyms for the 'topic' words, such as "countryside", "cities", etc.
  4. Learn some words and phrases that can be used in ANY essay which requires you to talk about reasons and offer solutions. See below for examples.

 

Urbanization 1

STEP-BY-STEP WRITING GUIDE

NOTE - Advanced and useful vocabulary is included in bold.

STEP ONE - INTRODUCTION

EXAMPLE - [Topic] As an increasing number of people migrate from rural areas to urban ones, problems, such as overcrowding, begin to arise. [Type] This essay will look at the factors underlying this phenomenon and then offer some potential solutions to it.

TIPS - (i) Your introduction only needs to be TWO sentences. Use the first sentence to inform the reader of the topic and the second one to inform them of the essay type i.e. opinion, discuss, problem and solutions, etc. (ii) Try to use some synonyms for the keywords when you paraphrase the topic. In the example above, "more and more" has been changed to "an increasing number" and synonyms for "countryside" and "cities" have been used. (iii) Similarly, use synonyms for the key essay words e.g. "factors" instead of "reasons" (iv) Remember that your solutions might not work in reality, so calling them "potential" solutions is a good way to show some balance AND your vocabulary.

STEP TWO - BODY ONE: REASONS

EXAMPLE - The principal reason driving people to move to cities is that they provide much greater job opportunities [Why?] Rural areas are often economically depressedwith high unemployment levels, [Result?] so people are often forced to look for work in the city in order to be able to support their families. The availability of better services is also another major contributing factor. [Like what?] Access to quality healthcare and education is often lacking in the countryside, whereas cities offer modern medical facilities and educational institutions, which are both essential for a good quality of life.

TIPS - (i) Try to include some advanced adjectives before your common essay words e.g. "principal" before "reason" and "contributing" with "factor" (ii) Also, try to include some advanced 'topic' words e.g "educational institutions" and "economically depressed" (iii) You can split these two ideas into TWO paragraphs if you want. Just remember to link them in a clear way.

Urbanization 2

STEP THREE - BODY TWO: SOLUTIONS

EXAMPLE - "Nevertheless, there are some steps that can be taken to address this issue. The most obvious is to try to improve living conditions in rural areas [How?] This could be done by increasing government investment and encouraging private investment in rural areas. If rural residents can find suitable work in their vicinity, they will not feel compelled to pack up their lives and move to the city. Similarly, health and educational services need to be boosted in the countryside [Result?] This would not only improve living standards but also give people in these areas a better chance to succeed in life.

TIPS - (i) Try to make sure your solutions deal with the reasons you identified in the previous paragraph. (ii) Your ideas/solutions do not need to be amazing, they just need to be clearly explained/make sense (iii) Make sure your explanation is always trying to answer the reader's questions (iv) You can use the first sentence in this paragraph to link ANY reason-->solution paragraphs

STEP FOUR - CONCLUSION

EXAMPLE - Overall, it seems factors that cause people to move to cities are related to a desire to make a better life for oneself and one's family. Therefore, the best approach to dealing with any problems that come about from urbanization is to develop rural areas.

TIPS - (i) In your conclusion you just need to mention that there is a problem BUT it can be solved (ii) Try to finish on a positive/optimistic note if you can!

Urbanization 3

FULL SAMPLE ANSWER

As an increasing number of people migrate from rural areas to urban ones, problems, such as overcrowding, begin to arise. This essay will look at the factors underlying this phenomenon and then offer some potential solutions to it.

The principal reason driving people to move to cities is that they provide much greater job opportunitiesRural areas are often economically depressed with high unemployment levels, so people are often forced to look for work in the city in order to be able to support their families. The availability of better services is also another major contributing factor. Access to quality healthcare and education is often lacking in the countryside, whereas cities offer modern medical facilities and educational institutions, which are both essential for a good quality of life.

Nevertheless, there are some steps that can be taken to address this issue. The most obvious is to try to improve living conditions in rural areasThis could be done by increasing government investment and encouraging private investment in rural areas. If rural residents can find suitable work in their vicinity, they will not feel compelled to pack up their lives and move to the city. Similarly, health and educational services need to be boosted in the countrysideThis would not only improve living standards but also give people in these areas a better chance to succeed in life.

Overall, it seems factors that cause people to move to cities are related to a desire to make a better life for oneself and one's family. Therefore, the best approach to dealing with any problems that come about from urbanization is to develop rural areas.