Part A. Expectation
What is the difference between advice and expectation?
- Expectation refers to events or situations that we believe to be true.
Should and ought to give this meaning.
- She should be researching now.
- He ought to be in the office this morning.
- She shouldn’t be at home now.
- I should finish my history course in September.
- He ought to get married and settle down.
- In negative sentences, should not is preferred to ought to, which is grammatically correct but awkward. Should not is much better.
- The university should not be hiring new staff at the moment.
- The university ought not hire at the moment.
Past - Should have + past participle (V3) describes actions or events that we expected to have occurred in the past.
- The project should have been completed last year.
- The researchers should have compiled the documents.
- The specimen should have given us more evidence to confirm our theory.
Exercise A: Rephrase the following sentences using should and ought to. Some will be passive.
Example: I expect the project to be finished soon.
The project should be finished soon.
- She expects the book to be finished shortly.
- He expects to find the evidence in the general’s correspondence.
- They expect to learn new facts.
- I expect to use several sources.
- She expects to introduce a different perspective.
Exercise B: Rephrase the following sentences using should have + past participle (V3).
Example: They expected to find gold.
They should have found gold.
- We expected to discover the sunken ship in the Black Sea.
- We expected to have uncovered the coffin yesterday.
- He expected to meet the general at the Naval Museum.
- They expected to get permission to go easily.
- We expected to have scientific tests on the object.
Exercise C: Write expectations using the following cues.
Example: world war
There should not be another world war.
These are multiple possible answers.
- The European Union
- the environment