The three ahead are old and sick, walk forward to adjust the rhythm of the group in case of running so they don’t stay behind them.
The next five are the strongest and the best, have the task of protecting the vanguard in case of attack.
The package in between is always protected against each attack.
The five behind them are also among the strongest and the best; they are responsible for protecting the back in case of attack.
The last one is the boss. Make sure no one is left behind. It maintains the unified package and on the same road. He’s always ready to run in any direction to protect and serve from “Bodyguard” to the whole group.
Just in case someone wants to know what it really means to be a leader. It’s not about being in front. It means taking care of the team.
Lecture 4 in my Psychological Significance of the Biblical Stories lecture series
I turned my attention in this lecture to the older of the two creation accounts in Genesis: the story of Adam and Eve. In its few short paragraphs, it covers:
the emergence of human self-consciousness;
mankind’s attendant realization of vulnerability, mortality, and death;
the origin of the capacity for willful evil, as the ability to exploit that newly-realized vulnerability;
the emergence of shame as a consequence of that realization;
the shrinking from divine destiny that occurred when shame emerged; and
the beginning of true history, with the self-conscious toil that life in history entails.
Impossible. Amazing. Breathtaking.
The only story that can perhaps match it in terms of impact per sentence is that of Cain and Abel, which we discuss in the next lecture: number five in this twelve part series.
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Electrofishing for Whales
I used to work on a fisheries crew where we would use an electro-fisher backpack to momentarily stun small fish (30 – 100 mm length) so we could scoop them up with nets to identify and measure them. The larger fish tended to be stunned for slightly longer because of their larger surface area but I don’t imagine this relationship would be maintained for very large animals. Could you electrofish for a blue whale? At what voltage would you have have to set the e-fisher?
So you want to give endangered whales powerful electric shocks. Great! I’m happy to help. This is definitely a very normal thing to want to do.
There are various electrofishing setups, but they all operate on the same general principle: An electric current flows through the water, and also through any fish that happen to be in the water. The electric current, through a few different physical effects, draws the fish toward one of the electrodes and/or stuns them.
For a long time, people didn’t really notice that electrofishing injured fish at all. For the most part, stunned fish seemed to be fine after a few minutes. However, they frequently suffer from internal damage which isn’t obvious from the outside. The electric current causes involuntary muscle spasms, which can fracture the fish’s vertebrae. As this paper shows, these kinds of spinal injuries are more common and severe in larger fish.
As you mention, for a given electrofishing setup, larger fish are usually more affected than smaller ones.This can lead to larger fish being overrepresented in sampling studies. Why? Well, we don’t know. In their comprehensive 2003 study Immobilization Thresholds of Electrofishing Relative to Fish Size, biologists Chad Dolan and Steve Miranda modeled the way electric currents stun fish of different sizes, but caution that “no adequate conceptual system exists to explain the effects of size on electroshock thresholds from the perspective of electric fields.”
None of these studies dealt with animals anywhere near the size of whales. The largest fish in Dolan and Miranda’s study were still quite small. This experiment tested larger fish up to 80cm long,The fish they used in the experiment grew rapidly to a range of sizes, mainly because the larger ones kept eating their smaller siblings. but nothing whale-sized.There’s been at least one case of dolphin death linked to illegal electrofishing. Since we don’t know exactly why larger fish respond differently, it’s hard to confidently extrapolate.
Fish are typicallyActual quote from that paper: “The results for these tests were unsettling … this observation was so unexpected that we stopped the experiment to recalibrate the equipment.” stunned by equipment delivering about 100 µW of power per cm3 of body volume, so for a whale, that would be about 20 megawatts.
But there’s a catch: Most electrofishing is done in fresh water. Unfortunately, blue whales live in the ocean,I mean, unfortunately for Madeline. It’s fortunate for the whales. where the salt water conducts electricity much more easily. That might seem like good news for our electrofishing plans, but it turns out to make it much more challenging.
Electrofishing works best when the water and the target animals are about equally conductive. In highly conductive saltwater, most of the current flows past the animals in the water rather than through them. This means that ocean electrofishing requires much more power. Using our simple extrapolation, instead of 20 megawatts, we might need a gigawatt. In other words, you’ll need to bring a large nuclear generating station.
Simple extrapolation is misleading here, since we know that large animals respond to electricity differently. How differently? Well, according to an electrofishing.net post by Jan Dean, a human who fell into the water in front of a typical electrofishing boat could easily die.While it sounds dangerous, people aren’t often killed during electrofishing accidents. The 2000 EPA report “New Perspectives in Electrofishing” comments that “In the United States, since World War II, only about five electrocutions during electrofishing have been documented.” I assume they just mean records weren’t kept before World War II, but it’s technically possible that the war involved so many electrofishing deaths that they need to exclude it from the stats. Blue whales, which are even larger than humans, would presumably fare even worse.
Electrofishing temporarily stops a fish’s heart.Until reading this paper, I didn’t know clove oil was used as a fish anesthetic. You learn something new every day! The fish seem to recover, most of the time, but humans—and probably whales—have a harder time with cardiac arrest.
It’s possible that giving blue whales massive electrical shocks isn’t as good an idea as it sounded at first.
That’s not to say there’s no place in science for giving random electric shocks to large aquatic animals. A project at the Denver Wildlife Research Center used electrofishing-style equipment—linked to an infrared camera—to repel beavers, ducks, and geese from selected areas. Apparently, the results were “encouraging.”The equipment kept the beavers away, although they returned as soon as it was turned off. It also worked on ducks and geese, although they had some problems with infrared waterfowl detection. The birds would usually take flight when the equipment turned on, although if it was cold enough, they’d just sluggishly paddle away.
So electrofishing equipment probably can’t help you catch blue whales. However, if you’re having trouble keeping them out of your backyard pond …
… it’s possible the Denver Wildlife Research Center can help you out. […]
First let’s lооk аt whаt kеерѕ саnсеr сеllѕ аlіvе, then wе will соmе back аnd еxаmіnе hоw thе cannabinoids CBD (саnnаbіdіоl) аnd THC (tеtrаhуdrосаnnаbіnоl) unravels саnсеr’ѕ аlіvеnеѕѕ.
In every cell, thеrе іѕ a family of іntеrсоnvеrtіblе ѕрhіngоlіріdѕ that ѕресіfісаllу manage thе lіfе аnd dеаth оf that cell. Thіѕ profile of fасtоrѕ is саllеd the “Sрhіngоlіріd Rheostat.” If endogenous ceramide(a ѕіgnаlіng mеtаbоlіtе of sphingosine-1-phosphate) іѕ hіgh, then cell dеаth (apoptosis) is іmmіnеnt. If сеrаmіdе is low, thе cell іѕ ѕtrоng in its vitality.
Vеrу ѕіmрlу, when THC connects tо thе CB1 оr CB2 cannabinoid rесерtоr ѕіtе оn thе cancer сеll, іt causes an іnсrеаѕе in ceramide ѕуnthеѕіѕ whісh drіvеѕ сеll dеаth. A nоrmаl hеаlthу cell does not produce ceramide іn the presence оf THC, thus іѕ nоt аffесtеd by thе саnnаbіnоіd.
Thе саnсеr сеll dіеѕ, nоt bесаuѕе of cytotoxic сhеmісаlѕ, but bесаuѕе оf a tiny little shift іn thе mіtосhоndrіа. Within most сеllѕ there іѕ a сеll nucleus, numerous mіtосhоndrіа (hundrеdѕ tо thоuѕаndѕ), and various оthеr оrgаnеllеѕ in thе суtорlаѕm. Thе рurроѕе оf thе mitochondria іѕ to рrоduсе energy (ATP) fоr сеll uѕе. As ceramide starts to ассumulаtе, turnіng uр the Sрhіngоlіріd Rhеоѕtаt, іt іnсrеаѕеѕ thе mіtосhоndrіаl membrane роrе реrmеаbіlіtу tо cytochrome c, a critical рrоtеіn іn еnеrgу ѕуnthеѕіѕ. Cytochrome c is рuѕhеd оut оf thе mіtосhоndrіа, kіllіng the source of еnеrgу for thе сеll.
Cеrаmіdе also causes gеnоtоxіс ѕtrеѕѕ іn the саnсеr сеll nucleus generating a рrоtеіn саllеd р53, whоѕе job іt is tо dіѕruрt саlсіum metabolism іn the mitochondria. If thіѕ wеrеn’t еnоugh, ceramide disrupts thе cellular lysosome, the cell’s dіgеѕtіvе system thаt рrоvіdеѕ nutrients fоr аll cell functions. Ceramide, аnd оthеr ѕрhіngоlіріdѕ, асtіvеlу inhibit рrо-ѕurvіvаl раthwауѕ іn thе сеll lеаvіng nо роѕѕіbіlіtу at all оf саnсеr cell ѕurvіvаl.
Thе kеу tо this process іѕ thе ассumulаtіоn оf сеrаmіdе іn thе ѕуѕtеm. Thіѕ mеаnѕ tаkіng thеrареutіс amounts оf CBD аnd THC, steadily, оvеr a реrіоd оf tіmе, kееріng mеtаbоlіс рrеѕѕurе оn thіѕ саnсеr cell death pathway.
How dіd this раthwау соmе tо bе? Whу іѕ it thаt thе bоdу can take a ѕіmрlе рlаnt enzyme and uѕе it for рrоfоund hеаlіng іn mаnу different physiological ѕуѕtеmѕ? From my research, this еndосаnnаbіnоіd ѕуѕtеm exists in mammal life, juѕt waiting for its mаtсhеd exocannabinoid activator. This is interesting. Our оwn endocannabinoid ѕуѕtеm соvеrѕ аll сеllѕ and nеrvеѕ; it is thе messenger of іnfоrmаtіоn flоwіng bеtwееn оur іmmunе ѕуѕtеm and thе сеntrаl nеrvоuѕ ѕуѕtеm (CNS). It is responsible for neuroprotection, and mісrо-mаnаgеѕ thе іmmunе system. Thіѕ is the рrіmаrу control system that mаіntаіnѕ homeostasis; оur wеll bеіng.
Just оut оf сurіоѕіtу, hоw dоеѕ thе wоrk get done аt thе cellular level, and whеrе does the bоdу mаkе the еndосаnnаbіnоіdѕ? Here we see thаt еndосаnnаbіnоіdѕ hаvе thеіr origin іn nеrvе сеllѕ rіght at the synapse. Whеn thе body is compromised thrоugh іllnеѕѕ оr injury іt саllѕ іnѕіѕtеntlу tо the еndосаnnаbіnоіd ѕуѕtеm and dіrесtѕ thе immune ѕуѕtеm tо bring hеаlіng. If thеѕе hоmеоѕtаtіс ѕуѕtеmѕ аrе wеаkеnеd, іt should be nо ѕurрrіѕе thаt еxосаnnаbіnоіdѕ аrе thеrареutіс. It hеlрѕ the bоdу in thе mоѕt nаturаl wау роѕѕіblе.
To see hоw thіѕ wоrkѕ wе visualize the cannabinoid аѕ a thrее dіmеnѕіоnаl mоlесulе, whеrе one раrt оf the mоlесulе іѕ соnfіgurеd tо fit thе nerve оr immune сеll rесерtоr site juѕt like a kеу in a lосk. There аrе аt lеаѕt twо tуреѕ оf саnnаbіnоіd receptor ѕіtеѕ, CB1 (CNS) аnd CB2 (іmmunе). In gеnеrаl CB1 асtіvаtеѕ thе CNS mеѕѕаgіng ѕуѕtеm, аnd CB2 асtіvаtеѕ thе immune system, but іt’ѕ muсh mоrе соmрlеx thаn thіѕ. Bоth THC and аnаndаmіdе асtіvаtе bоth receptor sites. Othеr саnnаbіnоіdѕ асtіvаtе one оr thе оthеr rесерtоr sites. Amоng the ѕtrаіnѕ оf Cаnnаbіѕ, C. ѕаtіvа tends tоwаrd thе CB1 receptor, аnd C. indica tеndѕ toward CB2. Sо ѕаtіvа is mоrе neuroactive, and іndіса is more immunoactive. Anоthеr fасtоr hеrе іѕ thаt ѕаtіvа іѕ dоmіnаtеd bу THC саnnаbіnоіdѕ, аnd іndіса іѕ рrеdоmіnаtеlу CBD (cannabidiol).
It іѕ knоwn thаt THC аnd CBD аrе bіоmіmеtіс tо anandamide, thаt іѕ, the bоdу саn use bоth interchangeably. Thuѕ, when ѕtrеѕѕ, injury, оr іllnеѕѕ dеmаnd mоrе from еndоgеnоuѕ аnаndаmіdе thаn саn be produced bу thе bоdу, іtѕ mіmеtіс exocannabinoids аrе асtіvаtеd. If the ѕtrеѕѕ іѕ trаnѕіtоrу, thеn thе trеаtmеnt саn be transitory. If thе dеmаnd is ѕuѕtаіnеd, such as іn саnсеr, thеn trеаtmеnt nееdѕ to рrоvіdе ѕuѕtаіnеd рrеѕѕurе оf thе mоdulаtіng аgеnt on thе homeostatic ѕуѕtеmѕ.
Typically CBD grаvіtаtеѕ tо thе dеnѕеlу расkеd CB2 rесерtоrѕ іn thе ѕрlееn, hоmе tо thе body’s іmmunе ѕуѕtеm. Frоm thеrе, іmmunе сеllѕ ѕееk out аnd destroy cancer cells. Intеrеѕtіnglу, it has bееn ѕhоwn that THC and CBD cannabinoids have the аbіlіtу tо kіll саnсеr cells directly without going through іmmunе іntеrmеdіаrіеѕ. THC аnd CBD hijack thе lіроxуgеnаѕе pathway tо directly inhibit tumour growth. Aѕ a ѕіdе note, іt hаѕ been discovered thаt CBD inhibits аnаndаmіdе rеuрtаkе. Here we ѕее that cannabidiol hеlрѕ thе bоdу preserves its own nаturаl еndосаnnаbіnоіd bу inhibiting the enzyme that breaks dоwn аnаndаmіdе.
An Exploratory Study of “Selfitis” and the Development of the Selfitis Behavior Scale
Abstract In 2014, stories appeared in national and international media claiming that the condition of Bselfitis^ (the obsessive taking of selfies) was to be classed as a mental disorder by the American Psychiatric Association and that the condition could be borderline, acute, or chronic. However, the stories were a hoax but this did not stop empirical research being carried out into the concept. The present study empirically explored the concept and collected data on the existence of selfitis with respect to the three alleged levels (borderline, acute, and chronic) and developed the Selfitis Behavior Scale (SBS). Initially, focus group interviews with 225 Indian university students were carried out to generate potential items for the SBS. The SBS was then validated using 400 Indian university students via exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Six factors were identified in the EFA comprising environmental enhancement, social com- petition, attention seeking, mood modification, self-confidence, and social conformity. The findings demonstrate that the SBS appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing selfitis but that confirmatory studies are needed to validate the concept more rigorously.
7 grams of decarbed indica/sativa (cbd/thc as per law/preference)
1 ginger root
50g pine pollen
food grade alcohol (50% proof minimum)
put alcohol in the freezer. leave for 1 hour.
grind the cannabis. put cannabis in the freezer. leave for 1 hour.
peal and slice the garlic
peel the ginger and slice the ginger,
put the frozen cannabis, pine pollen, ginger and garlic into mason jar
fill mason jar upto half way with the above.
cover with alcohol completely, filling up 3/4 of the whole mason jar.
cover and leave for 14 days in dark, cool environment.
air once a day (open jar lid and close)
shake once a day
after 2 weeks, use with droplet under the tongue. leave under tongue for as long as you are comfortable, trying as hard not to swallow for as long as possible.
Tinctures are highly concentrated alcoholic extracts of an herb.They are made by macerating (soaking) the chosen herbs in alcohol (usually vodka or organic grain alcohol) at a ratio typically ranging from 1:1 (herb to alcohol) to 1:10, depending on the desired strength and recommended dosage of the selected herbs.
Herbs are absorbed more quickly into circulation and therefore begin to take effect faster when taken in tincture form.
After macerating anywhere from 6-8 weeks, the tinctures are then pressed and the marc (left-over herbal matter) is discarded. The remaining liquid is the tincture used for medicinal purposes, as the beneficial constituents from the herbs have been absorbed into the liquid. Most tinctures are administered at a dose ranging from 15-60 drops, several times per day. (In most cases, less than 2-3 teaspoons of alcohol is consumed on a daily basis when using tinctures.)
What is the Shelf Life of my Tinctures? How Should I Store Tinctures? What are they made with?
Tinctures are extracted most often in alcohol because it is such a potent solvent. As mentioned before, some herbs simply will not release their medicinal qualities to a solvent that is less potent, such as water, apple cider vinegar or vegetable glycerine. It takes something stronger, and alcohol is perfect. It also acts as an effective preservative. Alcohol-based tinctures have a virtually unlimited shelf life if stored in a cool, dark location. Refrigeration is not necessary.
Tinctures made from apple cider vinegar are wonderful, as the apple cider vinegar has wonderful health-building qualities of its own. They can be used as salad dressings, marinades or in foods, as well as for your regular tincture use. The shelf life of apple cider vinegar tinctures is very short – about a year or so if kept in a cool, dark cupboard or refrigerator (recommended). Apple cider vinegars are considered non-alcohol tinctures.
Vegetable glycerine is also used to make non-alcohol tinctures – these tinctures are known as glycerites. They have a much longer shelf life than the apple cider vinegar – 3 to 5 years if stored in a cool, dark cupboard. Tinctures made of vegetable glycerine are wonderful for children. They have a sweet taste to them and can make even bad tasting herbs taste good! Glycerine does not have the extraction power that alcohol does, but it still does a fantastic job and results in a highly effective product. They are a great choice for children or for those who prefer a non-alcohol product. PLEASE NOTE: As non-alcohol tinctures have no alcohol content to them to act as a preservative, they can easily become contaminated and are at risk for growing mold. To prevent this from happening, do NOT touch the glass dropper to any part of the mouth, do not let children suck on the glass dropper tube (which can break in their mouths as well), do not touch it with your hands, lay the dropper top on countertops or anything that might allow a microbe onto the glass tube and in turn, into the bottle, which can start mold. Mold is white to light grey in color and tends to float on top of the liquid or in the glass dropper tube. If your glycerine-based tinctures become contaminated and have mold, do not use them. Throw them away.
Once upon a time life evolved on a certain planet, bringing forth many different social organizations—packs, pods, flocks, troops, herds, and so on. One species whose members were unusually intelligent developed a unique social organization called a tribe. Tribalism worked well for them for millions of years, but there came a time when they decided to experiment with a new social organization (called civilization) that was hierarchal rather than tribal. Before long, those at the top of the hierarchy were living in great luxury, enjoying perfect leisure and having the best of everything. A larger class of people below them lived very well and had nothing to complain about. But the masses living at the bottom of the hierarchy didn’t like it at all. They worked and lived like pack animals, struggling just to stay alive.
“This isn’t working,” the masses said. “The tribal way was better. We should return to that way.” But the ruler of the hierarchy told them, “We’ve put that primitive life behind us forever. We can’t go back to it.” “If we can’t go back,”
the masses said, “then let’s go forward—on to something different.”
“That can’t be done,” the ruler said, “because nothing different is possible. Nothing can bebeyond civilization. Civilization is a final, unsurpassable invention.”
“But no invention is ever unsurpassable. The steam engine was surpassed by the gas engine. The radio was surpassed by television. The calculator was surpassed by the computer. Why should civilization be different?”
“I don’t know why it’s different,” the ruler said, “It just is .”
But the masses didn’t believe this—and neither do I.